Neuroscience Marker Panel

The nervous system controls and regulates both involuntary and voluntary processes in the organism, including the higher-order functions, such as perception, cognition, emotions, and others.

The principal cells of the central nervous system are the neurons, which process and transmit neural signals. Besides, different types of glial cells are present, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells that support, nourish and provide electrical isolation to the neural processes. The complexity of the nervous system is further augmented by the fact that different types of neurons utilize different types of chemical substances to transmit the information (chemical neurotransmitters) acting via multiple receptor subtypes.

Antibody-based immunohistochemistry is widely used in neuroscience research to detect, characterize and classify various cell types in the nervous system. Therefore, the need for highly-characterized and specific antibodies in neuroscience research is high.

At Atlas Antibodies we have developed a novel panel of PrecisA Monoclonals primary antibodies designed to recognize the main anatomical and neurochemical cell types in rodent and human nervous system. The monoclonal antibodies within the panel have been developed under the same stringent conditions as all PrecisA Monoclonals, guaranteeing a secured continuity and a stable supply.

  • Selected target proteins are expressed only by a single cell type.

  • IHC-validation in rat, mouse and human tissues

  • WB-validation in mouse and human tissue lysates for the majority of the markers

  • Antibodies are available with different isotypes, allowing for multiplexing experiments

  • Information on antigen used for immunization and epitope information are provided (when available)

Markers for Neural Lineage and Signaling

The Neuroscience Marker panel consists of neural lineage markers for neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes/ Schwann cells. The signaling markers target glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin systems.

The three different cell types, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and, astrocytes, are shown in Figure 2. The antibodies used are Anti-NEFM (AMAb91030), Anti-CNP (AMAb91068) and Anti-GFAP (AMAb91033) respectively, detected with isotype- specific secondary antibodies.

Figure 2: Multiplexed IHC-IF staining on a rat brain coronal section shows neurons labeled in green, oligodendrocytes in magenta and astrocytes in red. Anti-NEFM antibody of isotype IgG2b (AMAb91030) is used to label neurons and their processes. Oligodendrocytes are detected by Anti- CNP antibody of isotype IgG2a (AMAb91068). Astrocytes are labeled with Anti-GFAP antibody of isotype IgG1 (AMAb91033).

Immunohistochemical staining for some of the major brain neurotransmitter systems is shown in Figure 3. The image depicts the GABAergic, glutamatergic and acetylcholine systems, visualized by Anti-GAD1 (AMAb91076), Anti- VGLUT1 (AMAb91041) and Anti-CHAT (AMAb91129) antibodies, respectively.

Isotype-specific secondary antibodies were used for detection.

Figure 3: Multiplexed IHC-IF staining of mouse caudate- putamen/globus pallidus section shows the GABAergic system in red, the glutamatergic system in green and acetylcholine system in magenta. The anti-gad1 antibody of isotype IgG2a (AMAb91076) is used as a marker for the GABAergic system, Anti-VGLUT1 antibody of isotype IgG2b (AMAb91041) for the glutamatergic system and, Anti-CHAT antibody of isotype IgG1 (AMAb91129) is used to visualize the acetylcholine system.

High Specificity and Interspecies Reactivity

PrecisA Monoclonals Neuroscience markers show high specificity and selectivity for their target proteins.

Figure 4: The specificity and selectivity of Anti-NET antibody (AMAb91116) are demonstrated with IHC-IF (A, B, D, E, in green) and bright- field IHC (C, in brown) in the rat (A,D,E), mouse (B) and human (C) brains. DAT immunoreactivity (D, E) is visualized in magenta using Anti-DAT antibody (AMAb91125), for comparison. Nuclei, stained with DAPI, are visible in blue.

Figure 4 shows examples of IHC staining for Anti-NET (AMAb91116) monoclonal antibody. This antibody recognizes the noradrenaline transporter (NET, SLC6A2) and can be used to detect both noradrenergic cell bodies and processes in rat, mouse and human nervous system. The Anti-NET antibody AMAb91116 is highly-specific and does not show any cross-reactivity with e.g. the dopamine transporter (DAT, SLC6A3).

The specific staining of noradrenergic cell bodies and fibers in the rat locus coeruleus (A), noradrenergic fibers in the mouse cerebral cortex (B) and noradrenergic cell bodies and fibers in the human locus coeruleus (C) (Figure 4). The specificity of the AMAb91116 is further demonstrated on images D and E. These images show a coronal section of rat brain at the level of caudate-putamen stained with Anti-NET (AMAb91116) and Anti-DAT (AMAb91125).

The caudate-putamen is virtually devoid of noradrenaline fibers, mostly present in the cortex. The striatum shows a dense network of thin dopamine fibers (in magenta). Single noradrenaline fibers can sometimes be observed (D in green).

Summary of PrecicA Monoclonals Neuroscience Markers

Anti-NEFM antibody (AMAb91027) staining in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neurons.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: SDHLEEDIHRLKERF
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 98/98%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-NEFM antibody (AMAb91028) staining in neuronal processes of the rat cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: LKERFEEEARLRDDT
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 98%/98%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-NEFM antibody (AMAb91029) staining in the neuronal processes of the rat cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: iHC, WB
  • Epitope: SDHLEEDIHRLKERF
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat:
  • Isotype: IgG2a K

 

Anti-NEFM antibody (AMAb91030) staining in neurons and processes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope:SDHLEEDIHRLKERF
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 98/98%
  • Isotype: IgG2b K

 

Anti-NEFH antibody (AMAb91025) staining in Purkinje cells and neural fibers in the human cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: ECRIGFGPIPFSLPE
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 88/94%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-NEFL antibody (AMAb91314) staining in the mouse cerebral cortex neurons.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • Epitope: N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 97/99%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-GFAP antibody (AMAb91033) staining of astrocytes in the rat hippocampus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*, WB*
  • Epitope: PVQTFSNLQIRETSL
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 98/100%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-S100b antibody (AMAb91038) staining of a subset of astrocytes in the rat hippocampus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*, WB
  • Epitope: N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 99/98%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-GLUL antibody (AMAb91101) staining in a subset of astrocytes in the mouse hippocampus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB*
  • Epitope: LCEVFKYNRR
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 95/92%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-GLUL antibody (AMAb91102) staining in a subset of astrocytes in the rat hippocampus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB*
  • Epitope: AMFRDPFRKD
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 95/92%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-GLUL antibody (AMAb91103) staining in a subset of astrocytes in the human cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope:YLVPAAMFRDPRFRKD
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 95/92 %
  • Isotype: IgG2a K

 

Anti-MBP antibody (AMAb91062) staining of myelinated neural fibers in the rat cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • Epitope: RTPPPSQGKG
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 97/97%
  • Isotype: IgG2a K

 

Anti-MBP antibody (AMAb91063) staining of myelinated neural fibers in the rat striatum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • Epitope: N.D. 
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 97/97%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-MBP antibody (AMAb91064) staining of myelinated neural fibers in the rat cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: RTPPPSQGKG
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 97/97%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-MOG antibody (AMAb91066) staining of myelinated neural fibers in the rat cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: FSRVVHLYRNGKDQD
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 91/89 %
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-MOG antibody (AMAb91067) staining of myelinated neural fibers in the mouse striatum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: GMEVGWYRPP
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 91/89%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-CNP antibody (AMAb91068) staining of oligodendrocytes in the rat cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB*
  • Epitope:PGVLHCTTKFCDYGK
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 76/77%
  • Isotype: IgG2a K

 

Anti-CNP antibody (AMAb91069) staining of oligodendrocytes in the mouse striatum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope:N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat:76/77%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-CNP antibody (AMAb91072) staining of oligodendrocytes in the human cerebral cortex.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB,  ICC-IF
  • Epitope: LSEQQLQLWPSDVDK
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 76/77%
  • Isotype: IgG2b K

 

Anti-CHAT antibody (AMAb91129) staining of acetylcholine neurons in the rat basal forebrain.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*
  • Epitope: GLFSSYRLPGHTQDT
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 96/96%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-CHAT antibody (AMAb91130) staining of acetylcholine neurons and fibers in the mouse striatum.

  • Validated Applications:IHC*, ICC-IF
  • Epitope: GLFSSYRLPGHTQDT
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 96/96%
  • Isotype: IgG2b

 

Anti-VGluT1 antibody (AMAb91041) staining of glutamatergic processes in the rat cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*, WB
  • Epitope: EERKYIEDAI
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 94/94%
  • Isotype: IgG2b K

 

Anti-VGluT2 antibody (AMAb91081) staining of glutamatergic fibers in the rat cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*
  • Epitope:EETGDITQNYINYGT
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 85/85%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-VGluT2 antibody (AMAb91086) staining of the glomeruli of the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: NGGWPSGWEK
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 85/85%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-GAD1 antibody (AMAb91076) staining of GABAergic fibers in the rat globus pallidus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: TETDFSNLFA
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat:94/94%
  • Isotype: IgG2a K

 

Anti-GAD1 antibody (AMAb91078) staining of GABAergic fibers in the mouse hippocampus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: TETDFSNLFA
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 94/94%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-GAD1 antibody (AMAb91079) staining of Purkinje cells in the human cerebellum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: TETDFSNLFA
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 94/94%
  • Isotype: IgG2b K

 

Anti-GAD2 antibody (AMAb91048) staining of GABAergic fibers in the rat basal forebrain.

  • Validated Applications: IHC, WB
  • Epitope: AACACDQKPC
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 84/88%
  • Isotype: IgG1 K

 

Anti-VGAT antibody (AMAb91043) stainin of GABAergic fibers in the rat globus pallidus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 95/93%
  • Isotype: IgG1 

 

Anti-DAT antibody (AMAb91125) staining of dopaminergic fibers in the rat striatum.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: ELPWIHCNNSWNSPN
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 85/85%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-DDC antibody (AMAb91089) staining of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

  • Validated Applications: IHC*, WB
  • Epitope: MDWLGKMLEL
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 90/88%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-NET antibody (AMAb91116) staining of noradrenaline neurons in the rat locus coeruleus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: HTKYSKYKFTPAAEF
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: N.D.
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-TH antibody (AMAb91112) staining of monoamine neurons in the mouse paraventricular nucleus.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 88/88%
  • Isotype: IgG1

 

Anti-TPH2 antibody (AMAb91108) staining of serotonin neurons in the rat dorsal raphe.

  • Validated Applications: IHC
  • Epitope: N.D.
  • Sequence Identity Mouse/Rat: 100/100%
  • Isotype: IgG1