Learn how our antibodies are validated in immunocytochemistry, and find the protocols you need to be successful in your experiment.
Protocols and guides
To achieve the best results with our antibodies, make sure to use these recommended protocols. The protocols are optimized for Triple A Polyclonals and PrecisA Monoclonals.
Looking for a different protocol? See all our protocols for IHC, WB and ICC.
Validation and characterization in ICC
Our antibodies, Triple A Polyclonals and PrecisA Monoclonals, are characterized and validated by Immunofluorescence (ICC-IF) staining in human cell lines by confocal microscopy, making it possible to pinpoint the subcellular distribution of the analyzed target proteins.
See all antibodies validated for ICC.
Selection of cell lines
By using RNA-seq data for the target genes, which is published for a large panel of cell lines on the Cell Atlas section of the Human Protein Atlas, a cell line with endogenous expression of the target gene is selected for ICC-IF testing. This way, we ensure that the protein target is endogenously expressed in the target cell lines, thereby eliminating any false positive staining caused by the artificial overexpression of target proteins.
The selected cell line is cultured in vitro, fixed/permeabilized using formaldehyde/detergent treatment and immunofluorescently stained according to standardized protocols.
In addition to the specific antibody, cells are stained for microtubules and counterstained with the nuclear probe DAPI. A high-resolution, three-color image is acquired for each antibody using a Leica SP8X confocal laser scanning microscope equipped with a 63x magnification, water, or oil immersion objective.
The resulting images are single slice images representing one optical section of the analyzed cells. The different organelle probes are displayed as different channels in the multicolor images; the antibody staining is shown in green, nuclear stain in blue, and microtubules in red. The images are presented on the product data page for each ICC-validated antibody.
Annotation of subcellular location
The detailed information of the subcellular localization for a protein improves the characterization and specificity analysis of the antibodies beyond what is possible with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The subcellular localization patterns are compared with the IHC staining as well as the experimental protein characterization data available.
Triple A Polyclonals on the Cell Atlas
Our Triple A Polyclonals were used to create the Cell Atlas section of the Human Protein Atlas, to determine the subcellular distribution of a large percentage of the human proteome.
Antibodies were used in ICC-IF staining of three human cell lines and imaged by a confocal microscope, making it possible to pinpoint the subcellular distribution of the analyzed target proteins. For all antibodies to be analyzed, we selected two positive control cell lines based on RNA sequencing data and U-2 OS for all analyzed antibodies.
The extensive characterization data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project is available in the open-access Cell Atlas. On the product page for each Triple A Polyclonal validated for ICC, you can find links to this data on the Human Protein Atlas.
Explore the Cell Atlas
Our Triple A Polyclonals were used for the creation of the Cell Atlas section of the Human Protein Atlas, where the antibodies were used to determine the subcellular distribution of a large percentage of the human proteome.