Embryonic and Somatic Stem Cell Markers

Stem cells have a capacity for self-renewal by producing more of the same cell type. They also have the power to differentiate into other cell types. In humans and other mammals, the two major types of stem cells present are embryonic stem cells and somatic (adult) stem cells. Learn more and find antibodies targeting markers for different types of stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells present in early development

Embryonic stem cells are found early in the development in the inner mass of blastocysts. They possess properties of both self-renewal and potency. The embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells. This means that they can give rise to an unlimited number of other cell types.

IHC staining using monoclonal Anti-NANOG (AMAb91393)
NANOG protein normally is expressed during early embryonal development and is absent in normal adult tissues. Overexpression is observed in testicular embryonal carcinoma, shown by IHC staining using monoclonal Anti-NANOG (AMAb91393) (left). The antibody also shows nuclear positivity in NTERA-2 cells (middle) and a band of expected size in the WB assay (right). NTERA-2 cells are pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line, exhibiting biochemical and developmental properties similar to the cells of the early embryo.

Protein Markers for Embryonic Stem Cells

Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are identified by expression of several pluripotency markers, including the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG. The function of these transcription factors is to suppress the genes that lead to differentiation. In this way, the pluripotency of the cells is maintained.

During embryonal development, the embryonic stem cells differentiate and give rise to the three germ layers, including ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, from which all the tissues and organs are ultimately formed. For instance, the dorsal part of ectoderm will specialize in the neuroectoderm, which later will undergo neurulation and encephalization and will finally develop into the central nervous system. The neural stem cells are multipotent cells and generate various types of neural cells in a process of neurogenesis, including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

Immunohistochemical staining of of mouse embryo using monoclonal Anti-SOX2 (AMAb91307)
SOX2 is persistently expressed during embryonal development, first in the epiblast of preimplantation embryos, then more predominantly in the central nervous system after gastrulation. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal Anti-SOX2 (AMAb91307) shows nuclear positivity in the developing brain and eye (left) and neural tube (right) of mouse embryo.

Adult stem cell markers are multipotent

Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells, are found in various tissues after birth. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, they are lineage-restricted or multipotent. This means they produce only the cells representing the tissue of origin. Together with progenitor cells, they contribute to normal turnover of cells in adult tissues and may act as a repair system.

Antibodies targeting embryonic stem cell markers

The table below shows selected antibodies targeting embryonic stem cell markers. For more details on each antibody, click the respective link below to visit the product page.

OCT4 (POU5F1): Anti-ITGB1/POU5F1B polyclonal antibody (HPA058267)

  • validated for ICC-IF

SOX2: Anti-SOX2 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91307)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

NANOG: Anti-NANOG monoclonal antibody (AMAb91393)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

SALL4: Anti-SALL4 polyclonal antibody (HPA015791)

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

TCL1: Anti-TCL1A polyclonal antibody (HPA016604)

  • validated for IHC, WB

NACC1: Anti-NACC1 polyclonal antibody (HPA062245)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

NES: Anti-NES monoclonal antibody (AMAb90556)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

FUT4 (SSEA4, CD15): Anti-FUT4 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91414)

  • validated for WB

 

Antibodies targeting transcription factors

The table below shows selected antibodies targeting transcription factors. To find more details on each antibody, click the respective link below to visit the product page.

OCT4 (POU5F1): Anti-ITGB1/POU5F1B polyclonal antibody (HPA058267)  

  • validated for ICC-IF

c-MYC: Anti-MYC polyclonal antibody (HPA055893)

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

SOX2: Anti-SOX2 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91307)         

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

KLF4: Anti-KLF4 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91389)           

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

SOX3: Anti-SOX3 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91312)         

  • validated for WB

SOX15: Anti-SOX15 polyclonal antibody (HPA067196)         

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

KLF5: Anti-KLF5 polyclonal antibody (HPA040398)   

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

KLF2: Anti-KLF2 monoclonal antibody (HPA055964)

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

NANOG: Anti-NANOG monoclonal antibody (AMAb91393) 

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

SALL4: Anti-SALL4 polyclonal antibody (HPA015791)           

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

TCL1: Anti-TCL1A polyclonal antibody (HPA016604)

  • validated for IHC, WB

TCF3: Anti-TCF3 polyclonal antibody (HPA062476)  

  • IHC, WB

Antibodies targeting PSCs markers

The table below shows selected antibodies targeting PSCs (Pluripotent Stem Cells) Markers. For more details on each antibody, click the respective link below to visit the product page.

CD13: Anti-ANPEP polyclonal antibody (HPA004625)          

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

FUT4 (SSEA4, CD15): Anti-FUT4 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91414)          

  • validated for WB

NANOG: Anti-NANOG monoclonal antibody (AMAb91393) 

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

Antibodies targeting germ cell markers during specification

The table below shows selected antibodies Targeting Germ Cell Markers During Specification. For more details on each antibody, click the respective link below to visit the product page.

IFITM1 (Fragilis): Anti-IFITM1 polyclonal antibody (HPA004810)     

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

DAZL: Anti-DAZL polyclonal antibody (HPA019777) 

  • validated for IHC, WB

DDX4 (MVH): Anti-DDX4 polyclonal antibody (HPA037764)

  • validated for IHC

OCT4 (POU5F1): Anti-ITGB1/POU5F1B polyclonal antibody (HPA058267)  

  • validated for ICC-IF

c-KIT (CD117): Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody (AMAb90904)

  • validated for IHC, WB

TEKT1: Anti-TEKT1 polyclonal antibody (HPA062285)          

  • validated for IHC

GDF9: Anti-GDF9 polyclonal antibody (HPA069146)

  • validated for IHC

Antibodies targeting ectoderm and endoderm markers

The table below shows selected antibodies targeting The ectoderm, and endoderm markers. For more details on each antibody, click the respective link below to visit the product page.

OTX2: Anti-OTX2 polyclonal antibody (HPA000633)

  • validated for IHC

CHRD: Anti-CHRD polyclonal antibody (HPA035827)

  • validated for IHC

p63/TP73L: Anti-TP63 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91224) 

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

FOXJ3: Anti-FOXJ3 polyclonal antibody (HPA067284)          

  • validated for ICC-IF

PAX6: Anti-PAX6 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91372)         

  • validated for IHC, ICC-IF

GBX2: Anti-GBX2 polyclonal antibody (HPA067809)

  • validated for WB, ICC-IF

NES: Anti-NES monoclonal antibody (AMAb90556) 

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

TUBB3: Anti-TUBB3 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91395)    

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF

NOG: Anti-NOG polyclonal antibody (HPA061318)  

  • validated for IHC
Orthogonal antibody validation examples
Orthogonal Antibody Validation (Enhanced Validation) Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal A) Anti-KLF antibody (HPA002926) B) Anti-IFITM1 antibody (HPA004810) and C) Anti-KIT(CD-117) antibody (HPA004471) antibodies. Note the specific expression in tissues with high RNA levels and absence of positivity in tissues with no/low RNA levels.