Enhanced Validation

Polyclonal Anti-ACE2 Antibody

angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Recommended Applications
Orthogonal validation of protein expression using IHC by comparison to RNA-seq data of corresponding target in high and low expression tissues.
Product Description
Polyclonal Antibody against Human ACE2
Product Number
Unit Size
100 µl
Lot dependent
>10 in Stock
Ready to Ship
Target Protein
angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Target Gene
Antigen Sequence
Recombinant Protein Epitope Signature Tag (PrEST) antigen sequence
Verified Species Reactivity
Interspecies Information

Highest antigen sequence identity to the following orthologs:

Mouse ENSMUSG00000015405 (74%)

Rat ENSRNOG00000031665 (46%)

40% glycerol and PBS (pH 7.2). 0.02% sodium azide is added as preservative. Material Safety Data Sheet
Purification Method
Affinity purified using the PrEST antigen as affinity ligand
Gently mix before use. Optimal concentrations and conditions for each application should be determined by the user.
Unit Size
100 µl
Current Lot
Produced on demand. Contact support@atlasantibodies.com for more information.
Product Data Sheet
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Recommended conditions:

Dilution: 1:500 - 1:1000

Retrieval method: HIER pH6

Western Blot (WB)

Recommended conditions:

Working concentration: 0.04-0.4 µg/ml

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Orthogonal validation of protein expression using IHC by comparison to RNA-seq data of corresponding target in high and low expression tissues.

Western Blot (WB)

Validated in Western blot using relevant lysates (see Western blot application images above)

Protein Name
angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Gene Name
UniProt ID
Gene (Ensembl)
Entrez Gene ID
Normally shipped at ambient temperature
Store at +4°C for short term storage. Long time storage is recommended at -20°C.
Human Protein Atlas

This antibody has been used for staining of 44 normal human tissue samples as well as human cancer samples covering the 20 most common cancer types and up to 12 patients for each cancer type. The results are part of an ongoing effort to map the human proteome using antibodies.

All characterization data for ENSG00000130234 on the Human Protein Atlas

Ramasamy S, Kolloli A, Kumar R, Husain S, Soteropoulos P, Chang TL, Subbian S

Comprehensive Analysis of Disease Pathology in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts following Pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Biomedicines , 2022 Jun 7; 10(6):1343. Epub 2022 Jun 7

PubMed ID: 35740365 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines10061343

Kawano H, Motokawa T, Kurohama H, Okano S, Akashi R, Yonekura T, Ikeda S, Izumikawa K, Maemura K

Fulminant Myocarditis 24 Days after Coronavirus Disease Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Vaccination

Intern Med , 2022 May 31; 61(15):2319-2325. Epub 2022 May 31

PubMed ID: 35650138 DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9800-22

Pinto AL, Rai RK, Brown JC, Griffin P, Edgar JR, Shah A, Singanayagam A, Hogg C, Barclay WS, Futter CE, Burgoyne T

Ultrastructural insight into SARS-CoV-2 entry and budding in human airway epithelium

Nat Commun , 2022 Mar 25; 13:1609. Epub 2022 Mar 25

PubMed ID: 35338134 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29255-y

Peng Y, Wang ZN, Chen SY, Xu AR, Fang ZF, Sun J, Zhou ZQ, Hou XT, Cen LJ, Ma JJ, Zhao JC, Guan WJ, Wang DY, Zhong NS

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in peripheral lung club cells modulates the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol , 2022 Mar 23; 322(5):L712-L721. Epub 2022 Mar 23

PubMed ID: 35318858 DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00305.2021

Schurink B, Roos E, Vos W, Breur M, van der Valk P, Bugiani M

ACE2 Protein Expression During Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood

Pediatr Dev Pathol , 2022 Feb 28; 25(4):404-408. Epub 2022 Feb 28

PubMed ID: 35220822 DOI: 10.1177/10935266221075312


Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 suppresses gonadotrophin secretion from bovine anterior pituitaries

J Reprod Dev , 2022 Jan 27; 68(2):152-159. Epub 2022 Jan 27

PubMed ID: 35082199 DOI: 10.1262/jrd.2021-126

Haga K, Takai-Todaka R, Matsumura Y, Song C, Takano T, Tojo T, Nagami A, Ishida Y, Masaki H, Tsuchiya M, Ebisudani T, Sugimoto S, Sato T, Yasuda H, Fukunaga K, Sawada A, Nemoto N, Murata K, Morimoto T, Katayama K

Nasal delivery of single-domain antibody improves symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in an animal model

PLoS Pathog , 2021 Oct 14; 17(10):e1009542. Epub 2021 Oct 14

PubMed ID: 34648602 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009542

Ullah I, Prévost J, Ladinsky MS, Stone H, Lu M, Anand SP, Beaudoin-Bussières G, Symmes K, Benlarbi M, Ding S, Gasser R, Fink C, Chen Y, Tauzin A, Goyette G, Bourassa C, Medjahed H, Mack M, Chung K, Wilen CB, Dekaban GA, Dikeakos JD, Bruce EA, Kaufmann DE, Stamatatos L, McGuire AT, Richard J, Pazgier M, Bjorkman PJ, Mothes W, Finzi A, Kumar P, Uchil PD

Live imaging of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice reveals that neutralizing antibodies require Fc function for optimal efficacy

Immunity , . Epub 2021 Aug 18

PubMed ID: 34453881 DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.08.015

Choi Y, Jeon H, Brännström M, Akin JW, Curry TE Jr, Jo M

Ovulatory upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in dominant follicles of the human ovary

Fertil Steril , . Epub 2021 Aug 11

PubMed ID: 34538460 DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.08.009

Ottaiano A, Scala S, D’Alterio C, Trotta A, Bello A, Rea G, Picone C, Santorsola M, Petrillo A, Nasti G

Unexpected tumor reduction in metastatic colorectal cancer patients during SARS-Cov-2 infection

Ther Adv Med Oncol , 2021 Apr 29; 13:17588359211011455. Epub 2021 Apr 29

PubMed ID: 33995596 DOI: 10.1177/17588359211011455

Heuberger J, Trimpert J, Vladimirova D, Goosmann C, Lin M, Schmuck R, Mollenkopf H, Brinkmann V, Tacke F, Osterrieder N, Sigal M

Epithelial response to IFN‐γ promotes SARS‐CoV‐2 infection

EMBO Mol Med , 2021 Mar 3; 13(4):e13191. Epub 2021 Mar 3

PubMed ID: 33544398 DOI: 10.15252/emmm.202013191

Kwan JY, Lin LT, Bell R, Bruce JP, Richardson C, Pugh TJ, Liu FF

Elevation in viral entry genes and innate immunity compromise underlying increased infectivity and severity of COVID-19 in cancer patients

Sci Rep , 2021 Feb 25; 11:4533. Epub 2021 Feb 25

PubMed ID: 33633121 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-83366-y

Alawi LF, Dhakal S, Emberesh SE, Sawant H, Hosawi A, Thanekar U, Grobe N, Elased KM

Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1A Receptor on ACE2, Neprilysin and KIM-1 in Two Kidney One Clip (2K1C) Model of Renovascular Hypertension

Front Pharmacol , 2021 Jan 29; 11:602985. Epub 2021 Jan 29

PubMed ID: 33708117 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.602985

Lamers MM, van der Vaart J, Knoops K, Riesebosch S, Breugem TI, Mykytyn AZ, Beumer J, Schipper D, Bezstarosti K, Koopman CD, Groen N, Ravelli RB, Duimel HQ, Demmers JA, Verjans GM, Koopmans MP, Muraro MJ, Peters PJ, Clevers H, Haagmans BL

An organoid‐derived bronchioalveolar model for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection of human alveolar type II‐like cells

EMBO J , . Epub 2021 Jan 11

PubMed ID: 33283287 DOI: 10.15252/embj.2020105912

Zamorano Cuervo N, Grandvaux N

ACE2: Evidence of role as entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and implications in comorbidities

eLife , 2020 Nov 9; 9:e61390. Epub 2020 Nov 9

PubMed ID: 33164751 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.61390

Blair RV, Vaccari M, Doyle-Meyers LA, Roy CJ, Russell-Lodrigue K, Fahlberg M, Monjure CJ, Beddingfield B, Plante KS, Plante JA, Weaver SC, Qin X, Midkiff CC, Lehmicke G, Golden N, Threeton B, Penney T, Allers C, Barnes MB, Pattison M, Datta PK, Maness NJ, Birnbaum A, Fischer T, Bohm RP, Rappaport J

Acute Respiratory Distress in Aged, SARS-CoV-2–Infected African Green Monkeys but Not Rhesus Macaques

Am J Pathol ,

PubMed ID: 33171111 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.10.016

Kusmartseva I, Wu W, Syed F, Van Der Heide V, Jorgensen M, Joseph P, Tang X, Candelario-Jalil E, Yang C, Nick H, Harbert JL, Posgai AL, Paulsen JD, Lloyd R, Cechin S, Pugliese A, Campbell-Thompson M, Vander Heide RS, Evans-Molina C, Homann D, Atkinson MA

Expression of SARS-CoV-2 Entry Factors in the Pancreas of Normal Organ Donors and Individuals with COVID-19

Cell Metab , 2020 Nov 13; 32(6):1041-1051.e6. Epub 2020 Nov 13

PubMed ID: 33207244 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.11.005

Coate KC, Cha J, Shrestha S, Wang W, Gonçalves LM, Almaça J, Kapp ME, Fasolino M, Morgan A, Dai C, Saunders DC, Bottino R, Aramandla R, Jenkins R, Stein R, Kaestner KH, Vahedi G, HPAP Consortium, Brissova M, Powers AC

SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 Are Expressed in the Microvasculature and Ducts of Human Pancreas but Are Not Enriched in β Cells

Cell Metab , 2020 Nov 13; 32(6):1028-1040.e4. Epub 2020 Nov 13

PubMed ID: 33207245 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.11.006

Wang W, Lv S, Gan W, Zeng Z, Yang M

A bioinformatics analysis on the potential role of ACE2 in cardiac impairment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019

Ann Transl Med , 2020 Nov; 8(21):1403

PubMed ID: 33313148 DOI: 10.21037/atm-20-2755

Barker H, Parkkila S

Bioinformatic characterization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2

PLoS One , 2020 Oct 28; 15(10):e0240647. Epub 2020 Oct 28

PubMed ID: 33112891 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240647

Lee IT, Nakayama T, Wu CT, Goltsev Y, Jiang S, Gall PA, Liao CK, Shih LC, Schürch CM, McIlwain DR, Chu P, Borchard NA, Zarabanda D, Dholakia SS, Yang A, Kim D, Chen H, Kanie T, Lin CD, Tsai MH, Phillips KM, Kim R, Overdevest JB, Tyler MA, Yan CH, Lin CF, Lin YT, Bau DT, Tsay GJ, Patel ZM, Tsou YA, Tzankov A, Matter MS, Tai CJ, Yeh TH, Hwang PH, Nolan GP, Nayak JV, Jackson PK

ACE2 localizes to the respiratory cilia and is not increased by ACE inhibitors or ARBs

Nat Commun , 2020 Oct 28; 11:5453. Epub 2020 Oct 28

PubMed ID: 33116139 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19145-6

Krueger JG, Murrell DF, Garcet S, Navrazhina K, Lee PC, Muscianisi E, Blauvelt A

Secukinumab lowers expression of ACE2 in affected skin of patients with psoriasis

J Allergy Clin Immunol , . Epub 2020 Sep 28

PubMed ID: 33002515 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.021

Duijf PH

Low Baseline Pulmonary Levels of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes as a Predisposing Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19

mSystems , 2020 Sep 1; 5(5):e00741-20. Epub 2020 Jul 31

PubMed ID: 32511391 DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.04.075291

Huang X, He C, Hua X, Kan A, Sun S, Wang J, Li S

Bioinformatic Analysis of Correlation between Immune Infiltration and COVID-19 in Cancer Patients

Int J Biol Sci , 2020 Jul 6; 16(13):2464-2476. Epub 2020 Jul 6

PubMed ID: 32760213 DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.48639

Duijf PH

Low baseline pulmonary levels of cytotoxic lymphocytes as a predisposing risk factor for severe COVID-19

bioRxiv , . Epub 2020 Jul 31

PubMed ID: 32511391 DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.04.075291

Hikmet F, Méar L, Edvinsson Å, Micke P, Uhlén M, Lindskog C

The protein expression profile of ACE2 in human tissues

Mol Syst Biol , 2020 Jul 26; 16(7):e9610. Epub 2020 Jul 26

PubMed ID: 32715618 DOI: 10.15252/msb.20209610

Lee IT, Nakayama T, Wu CT, Goltsev Y, Jiang S, Gall PA, Liao CK, Shih LC, Schürch CM, McIlwain DR, Chu P, Borchard NA, Zarabanda D, Dholakia SS, Yang A, Kim D, Kanie T, Lin CD, Tsai MH, Phillips KM, Kim R, Overdevest JB, Tyler MA, Yan CH, Lin CF, Lin YT, Bau DT, Tsay GJ, Patel ZM, Tsou YA, Tai CJ, Yeh TH, Hwang PH, Nolan GP, Nayak JV, Jackson PK

Robust ACE2 protein expression localizes to the motile cilia of the respiratory tract epithelia and is not increased by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers

medRxiv , . Epub 2020 May 12

PubMed ID: 32511516 DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.08.20092866

Fu J, Zhou B, Zhang L, Balaji KS, Wei C, Liu X, Chen H, Peng J, Fu J

Expressions and significances of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19

Mol Biol Rep , . Epub 2020 May 14

PubMed ID: 32410141 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05478-4

Dai YJ, Hu F, Li H, Huang HY, Wang DW, Liang Y

A profiling analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different type of cancers vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ann Transl Med , 2020 Apr; 8(7):481

PubMed ID: 32395525 DOI: 10.21037/atm.2020.03.61

Alawi LF, Emberesh SE, Owuor BA, Chodavarapu H, Fadnavis R, El‐Amouri SS, Elased KM

Effect of hyperglycemia and rosiglitazone on renal and urinary neprilysin in db/db diabetic mice

Physiol Rep , 2020 Feb 5; 8(3):e14364. Epub 2020 Feb 5

PubMed ID: 32026607 DOI: 10.14814/phy2.14364

Kato BS, Nicholson G, Neiman M, Rantalainen M, Holmes CC, Barrett A, Uhlén M, Nilsson P, Spector TD, Schwenk JM

Variance decomposition of protein profiles from antibody arrays using a longitudinal twin model

Proteome Sci , 2011 Nov 17; 9:73. Epub 2011 Nov 17

PubMed ID: 22093360 DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-73

Lee HJ, Nam KT, Park HS, Kim MA, Lafleur BJ, Aburatani H, Yang HK, Kim WH, Goldenring JR

Gene expression profiling of metaplastic lineages identifies CDH17 as a prognostic marker in early stage gastric cancer.

Gastroenterology , 2010 Jul; 139(1):213-25.e3. Epub 2010 Apr 13

PubMed ID: 20398667 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.04.008

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The protein expression profile of ACE2 in human tissues

Contribution from The Human Protein Atlas (proteinatlas.org) — April 21, 2020

Feria Hikmet*, Loren Méar*, Mathias Uhlén**, Cecilia Lindskog*

*Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden
**Science for Life Laboratory, School of engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and health, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 

The international spread of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global challenge on both healthcare and society. A multitude of research efforts worldwide aim at characterizing the cellular factors involved in viral transmission in order to reveal therapeutic targets. For a full understanding of the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cell type-specific expression of the host cell surface receptor is necessary. The key protein suggested to be involved in host cell entry is Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and its expression has been reported in various human organs, in some cases with inconsistent or contradictory results. Here, we aim to verify a reliable expression profile of ACE2 in all major human tissues and cell types. Based on stringently validated immunohistochemical analysis and high-throughput mRNA sequencing from several datasets, we found that ACE2 expression is mainly localized to microvilli of the intestinal tract and renal proximal tubules, gallbladder epithelium, testicular Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, glandular cells of seminal vesicle and cardiomyocytes. The expression in several other previously reported locations, including alveolar type II (AT2) cells, could not be confirmed. Furthermore, ACE2 expression was absent in the AT2 lung carcinoma cell line A549, often used as a model for viral replication studies. Our analysis suggests that the expression of ACE2 in the human respiratory system appears to be limited, and the expression of the receptor in lung or respiratory epithelia on the protein level is yet to be confirmed. This raises questions regarding the role of ACE2 for infection of human lungs and highlights the need to further explore the route of transmission during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Cell type-specific localization of ACE2 in human tissues based on immunohistochemistry.

Representative images of 18 tissue types and histological structures stained with immunohistochemistry using the polyclonal rabbit antibody HPA000288 (Atlas Antibodies AB), targeting human ACE2 protein (brown), and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Highest ACE2 expression was observed in microvilli of the intestinal tract and renal proximal tubules, in membranes of gallbladder epithelium, testicular Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, a subset of glandular cells in seminal vesicle (arrowheads), and in cytoplasm cardiomyocytes. Note that ACE2 protein expression was not detected in the lower parts of the mucosal intestinal layer. No protein expression was observed in lung, bronchus, nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, endometrium, smooth muscle tissue (visualized in muscle layer of small intestine), spleen, cerebral cortex, adipose tissue or different structures of the skin. Protein expression was neither detected in endothelial cells, here shown in cerebral cortex (arrow), nor in fibroblasts, here sown in dermis layer of skin (arrows). For details, see https://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000130234-ACE2/tissue.

Full text: 
bioRxiv preprint


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