Neuroinflammation Markers

Neuroinflammation broadly defines the collective reactive immune response in the brain and spinal cord in response to injury and disease.

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in acute brain trauma and hypoxic-ischemic brain damage following stroke, chronic infection and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lewy body dementia, and leukoencephalopathies like multiple sclerosis.

Atlas Antibodies offers a wide range of neuroinflammation markers targeting non-neuronal cell types involved in neuroinflammation processes such as microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes.

Microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neuroinflammation

Glial cells, comprising astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, are the non-neuronal cell population of the central nervous system (CNS). Glial cells do not produce electrical impulses. They maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons. Neuroinflammation arises within the CNS through phenotypic changes of the glial cells causing the release of different cytokines and chemokines, loss of myelin and neurons, recruitment, and infiltration of peripheral blood cells, mainly T-and B-cells, into the brain parenchyma.

Astrocyte markers

Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the CNS and the crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Astrocytes regulate the formation, maturation, maintenance, and stability of synapses by secreting various molecules critical for synaptogenesis. Astrocytes also contribute to the induction and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. In response to neuroinflammation, they undergo a process termed astrogliosis, which results in a spectrum of heterogenous changes that vary with etiology and severity of CNS injury. Classically, this process is characterized by upregulation of GFAP and vimentin, key astrocyte intermediate filaments, and hypertrophy of astrocyte processes. Antibodies targeting astrocytes include the Anti-GFAP, Anti-VIM, Anti-GLUL, Anti-S100B, Anti-EZR, and Anti-MT3.

ICC-IF of astrocytes and microglia in human brain tissue. Multiplexed immunofluorescence staining of human cerebral cortex showing microglia in green (Anti-TMEM119, AMAb91528) and astrocytes in red (Anti-MT3, HPA004011).

Microglia markers

Microglia cells are critical cellular mediators of neuroinflammatory processes. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the CNS. Activation of microglia is a hallmark of brain pathology. The chronic activation of microglia may cause neuronal damage through the release of potentially cytotoxic molecules such as proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, proteinases, and complement proteins. For example, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease, activated microglia participates in amyloid Aβ-plaques formation and the associated pathology. Antibodies targeting microglia cells include the Anti-AIF, Anti-CD68, Anti-HLA-DRA, Anti-ITGAM (CD11b), Anti-TMEM119, AIF1/Iba1-2, Anti-P2RY12, and Anti-PTPRC.  

ICC-IF of activated microglia in AD. Immunofluorescence staining of human cerebral cortex from an Alzheimer’s disease patient (left) and a normal control (right) using the Anti-HLA-DRA antibody (AMAb91674) showing positivity in microglial cells (in green). Nuclei counterstained by DAPI, in blue.

Oligodendrocytes markers

Oligodendrocytes are highly specialized glial cells whose function is to myelinate the CNS axons (equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system). Myelination of axons is fundamental for the rapid conduction of nerve impulses and contributes to axonal integrity. The devastating neurological deficits caused by demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, clearly illustrate the importance of well-functioning oligodendrocytes. Antibodies targeting oligodendrocytes include the Anti-MBP, Anti-MOG, Anti-CNP, Anti-GRP17, and Anti-OlIg2.

IHC and ICC-IF of myelinated axons. Immunohistochemical staining of the human cerebral cortex (left) and the rat striatum (right) using the Anti-MOG antibody (AMAb91066) shows strong positivity in myelinated neural processes.

PrecisA monoclonals markers

Here you can find a selection of Atlas Antibodies’ PrecisATM monoclonal antibodies targeting neuroinflammation processes. The antibodies are validated for use in research by IHC, WB, and ICC-IF. For more details on each antibody, the enhanced validation methods, and the mouse/rat sequence homology, visit the product pages.

Anti-AGER Antibody (AMAb91634)

Anti-AGER Antibody (AMAb91634)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-AGER Antibody (AMAb91635)

Anti-AGER Antibody (AMAb91635)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-AIF1 Antibody (AMAb91671)

Anti-AIF1 Antibody (AMAb91671)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-AIF1 Antibody (AMAb91672)

Anti-AIF1 Antibody (AMAb91672)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-AMIGO3 Antibody (AMAb91677)

Anti-AMIGO3 Antibody (AMAb91677)

Validated for WB

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Anti-ANO2 Antibody (AMAb91641)

Anti-ANO2 Antibody (AMAb91641)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-ANO2 Antibody (AMAb91642)

Anti-ANO2 Antibody (AMAb91642)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-CD163 Antibody (AMAb91646)

Anti-CD163 Antibody (AMAb91646)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-CD163 Antibody (AMAb91648)

Anti-CD163 Antibody (AMAb91648)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-CRYAB Antibody (AMAb91661)

Anti-CRYAB Antibody (AMAb91661)

Validated for WB, IHC, ICC-IF

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Anti-CRYAB Antibody (AMAb91662)

Anti-CRYAB Antibody (AMAb91662)

Validated for WB, IHC

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Anti-CXCL13 Antibody (AMAb91629)

Anti-CXCL13 Antibody (AMAb91629)

Validatd for IHC

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Anti-DYSF Antibody (AMAb91667)

Anti-DYSF Antibody (AMAb91667)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91664)

Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91664)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91665)

Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91665)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91666)

Anti-GAP43 Antibody (AMAb91666)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-GPR17 Antibody (AMAb91624)

Anti-GPR17 Antibody (AMAb91624)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-GZMB Antibody (AMAb91650)

Anti-GZMB Antibody (AMAb91650)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91673)

Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91673)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91674)

Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91674)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91675)

Anti-HLA-DRA Antibody (AMAb91675)

Valicated for IHC, WB

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Anti-IL17A Antibody (AMAb91615)

Anti-IL17A Antibody (AMAb91615)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-IL17RA Antibody (AMAb91617)

Anti-IL17RA Antibody (AMAb91617)

Validated for WB

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Anti-IL17RA Antibody (AMAb91619)

Anti-IL17RA Antibody (AMAb91619)

Validated for WB

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Anti-IL7 Antibody (AMAb91684)

Anti-IL7 Antibody (AMAb91684)

Validated for ICC-IF

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Anti-ITGA4 Antibody (AMAb91699)

Anti-ITGA4 Antibody (AMAb91699)

Validated for WB

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Anti-MS4A1 Antibody IAMAb91636)

Anti-MS4A1 Antibody IAMAb91636)

Validated for IHC, WB

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Anti-OPALIN Antibody (AMAb91685)

Anti-OPALIN Antibody (AMAb91685)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-OPALIN Antibody (AMAb91686)

Anti-OPALIN Antibody (AMAb91686)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-PLP1 Antibody (AMAb91639)

Anti-PLP1 Antibody (AMAb91639)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-RGMA Antibody (AMAb91702)

Anti-RGMA Antibody (AMAb91702)

Validated for WB

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Anti-S100A8 Antibody (AMAb91689)

Anti-S100A8 Antibody (AMAb91689)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-S100A9 Antibody (AMAb91690)

Anti-S100A9 Antibody (AMAb91690)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-SERPINA3 Antibody (AMAb91655)

Anti-SERPINA3 Antibody (AMAb91655)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-SPP1 Antibody (AMAb91653)

Anti-SPP1 Antibody (AMAb91653)

Validated for IHC

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Anti-TLR2 Antibody (AMAb91631)

Anti-TLR2 Antibody (AMAb91631)

Validated for WB

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Anti-TRPM4 Antibody (AMAb91693)

Anti-TRPM4 Antibody (AMAb91693)

Validat4ed for WB, ICH, ICC-IF

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