Cell Death Markers

Cell death results from apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. An inappropriate level of cell death, either too little or too much, is a decisive factor in cancer.

Apoptosis and autophagy are referred to as “programmed cell death” while necrosis is considered “unprogrammed cell death”. Necroptosis is another type of cell death that exhibits morphological features of both apoptosis and necrosis. 

Apoptosis

Apoptosis remains the most well-studied mechanism of programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a regulated, ATP-dependent cell death mechanism crucial for the removal of surplus and/or aberrant cells. This process ultimately depends on the actions of the activated form of the protease caspase-3.

Apoptosis is important during development, organogenesis, and aging, and serves as a mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis within tissues.

Cancer cells can surpass apoptosis by various mechanisms: by, for example, upregulating the anti-apoptotic (BCL2) pathway or inhibiting the pro-apoptotic proteins through genetic or epigenetic mechanisms.

IHC staining of breast cancer using Anti-BCL2 antibody (AMAb91492)
IHC staining of breast cancer using Anti-BCL2 antibody (AMAb91492).

Autophagy

Autophagy plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins and damaged organelles and depends upon their lysosomal proteolysis.

In normal tissues, autophagy contributes to the homeostasis of the cells. In cancer, dysregulation of autophagy contributes to protecting cells undergone malignant transformation. As a result, sustained survival and proliferation of tumor cells occur, supporting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis.

Necroptosis

Necroptosis is the caspase-independent “cellular suicide” or “regulated” necrosis. It is an alternative mode of regulated cell death mimicking features of both apoptosis and necrosis. Pieces of evidence based on a mouse model reveal that the deregulation of necroptosis is associated with pathological conditions like cancer1. Necroptosis is primarily regulated by proteins RIPK1 and RIPK3 and it may trigger and amplify antitumor immunity in cancer therapy.

 

Mechanisms in Cancer

Mechanisms in Cancer

Download our white paper to learn about the mechanisms in cancer and protein markers used in cancer research.

 

 

Download white paper

Antibodies targeting cell death markers

Atlas Antibodies offer a range of primary antibodies targeting cell death markers. Selected antibodies are listed below.

IHC staining of human tonsil with Anti-BCL2 antibody (AMAb91492)
IHC staining of human tonsil with Anti-BCL2 Antibody (AMAb91492) shows strong positivity in non-germinal center cells.

Anti-BCL2 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91492)

  • validated for IHC, WB 
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 100% / 94%

Anti-BCL2 polyclonal antibody (HPA055295)

  • validated for ICC-IF 
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 60% / 55%

Anti-ANXA1 polyclonal antibody (HPA011272)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 92% / 89%

Anti-ATG5 polyclonal antibody (HPA042973)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 96% / 94%

Anti-ATG5 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91582)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 96% / 94%

Anti-BAD polyclonal antibody (HPA028185)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 59% / 57%

Anti-BAX polyclonal antibody (HPA027878)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 90% / 88%

Anti-BAX monoclonal antibody (AMAb91490)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 79% / 79%

Anti-BID polyclonal antibody (HPA000722)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 64% / 61%

Anti-CASP8 polyclonal antibody (HPA005688)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 55% / 52%

Anti-CASP9 polyclonal antibody (HPA046488)

  • validated for IHC 
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 79% / 78%

Anti-DIABLO polyclonal antibody (HPA001825)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 88% / 88%

Anti-FAS polyclonal antibody (HPA027444)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 52% / 48%

Anti-MAP1LC3A polyclonal antibody (HPA052474)

  • validated for IHC
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 97% / 97%

Anti-mTOR monoclonal antibody (AMAb91508)

  • validated for WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 100% / 96%

Anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (AMAb90956)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 91% / 75%

Anti-p53 polyclonal antibody (HPA051244)

  • validated for WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 91% / 75%

Anti-PARP1 monoclonal antibody (AMAb90959)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 95% / 94%

Anti-PARP1 monoclonal antibody (AMAb90960)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 95% / 94%

Anti-PARP1 polyclonal antibody (HPA045168)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 95% / 94%

Anti-PDCD1 monoclonal antibody (AMAb91197)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 66% / 63%

Anti-PIK3CA monoclonal antibody (AMAb91513)

  • validated for WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 96% / 96%

Anti-PIK3CA monoclonal antibody (AMAb91514)

  • validated for IHC
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 96% / 96%

Anti-PIK3CB monoclonal antibody (AMAb91585)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 84% / 84%

Anti-RIPK1 polyclonal antibody (HPA015257)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 67% / 63%

Anti-RIPK2 polyclonal antibody (HPA015273)

  • validated for IHC, WB, ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 73% / 73%

Anti-RIPK3 polyclonal antibody (HPA055087)

  • validated for IHC, WB
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 38% / 38%

Anti-ULK1 polyclonal antibody (HPA063990)

  • validated for ICC-IF
  • sequence identity mouse/rat 87% / 87%

 

Reference

1Choi M.E. et al. (2019) Necroptosis: a crucial pathogenic mediator of human disease. JCI Insight. 4(15): e128834