Research roundup: diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers

Interested in seeing more of our cancer research antibodies in action? The following three studies have successfully utilized different Atlas Antibodies products to suggest or identify new biomarkers for different cancers.

1. IgG Fc binding protein (FCGBP) is downregulated in metastatic lesions and predicts survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (Yuan et al. 2021)  

In metastatic colorectal cancer, resistance to chemotherapy limits treatment efficacy due to individual differences and drug targets. A new study provides additional clinical biomarkers for prognosis improvement proposing alternative clinical options.

In this study, IgG-binding protein and colorectal cancer biomarker FCGBP are downregulated with disease progression. Additionally, the authors observed the relationship between FCGBP expression and the clinical features of liver metastases of colorectal cancer, showing a connection with better outcomes for patients with liver metastasis.  

 

atlas antibodies research roundup colorectal cancer

Figure 1. Representative immunohistochemistry staining pictures of FCGBP. High expression in CRC tissue and liver metastatic tissue (10× for AB, SI=10) and low expression (10× for CD, SI=1) for FCGBP protein are shown. (E) The immunohistochemistry score of FCGBP protein in PC and LM, ***p<0.001. (FG) Positive and negative controls for FCGBP immunohistochemistry. Image from Yuan et al. 2021.

 

Reading Tip

Take a look at our post "5 tips about validation when choosing an antibody" where we talk about the approved international guidelines for antibody validation.

 

2. Soluble protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) in cerebrospinal fluid is a potential diagnostic marker for glioma (Yamanoi et al. 2020) 

Non-invasive imaging of brain tumors like malignant glioma has limited diagnostic strength. This means that biopsies, which can cause harm and adverse events, often need to be taken. An alternative route could be to measure the presence of critical biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 

CSF sampling represents a largely non-invasive method that, together with non-invasive imaging, could provide accurate information about the tumor being investigated. 

In this paper, the authors identify soluble PTPRZ (phosphacan) as a promising marker for malignant glioma. If this finding can be replicated, soluble PTPRZ can be added to the shortlist of tumor markers measurable in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with glioma. 

PTPRZ protein is expressed in glioma cells.

Figure 2. PTPRZ protein is expressed in glioma cells. (A) Schematic structure of PTPRZ, showing the position of chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate (KS), N-glycan, and the unusual HNK1-capped branched O-Man glycan. Regions recognized by the anti-PTPRZ and Cat-315 antibody used in these analyses are indicated. (B–J) Glioblastoma (B–D), oligodendroglioma (E–G), and schwannoma (H–J) sections were analyzed by H&E staining (B, E, and H), in addition to immunohistochemical staining using anti-PTPRZ (C, F, and I) and Cat-315 (D, G, and J) antibodies. (B, C), (E, F), and (H–J) are derived from serial sections. Arrowheads indicate “microvascular proliferation,” one of the characteristic findings of glioblastoma. Asterisks indicate vessels on the schwannoma sections. Please note that glioma cells are both PTPRZ- and Cat-315-positive, while schwannoma cells are only PTPRZ-positive. Vascular structures of both glioblastoma and schwannoma are PTPRZ-negative. Scale bars, 100 µm. Image from Yamanoi et al. 2020.

 

3. Sirtuin1 expression and survival in endometrial and clear-cell uterine cancer (Beyer et al. 2020)   

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in endometrioid and clear-cell cancer of the uterus. Most previous studies have only reported overexpression of SIRT1 in endometrial and endothelial ovarian cancer types.  

The study shows that SIRT was significantly higher in endometroid carcinoma than in uterine clear cell carcinoma. SIRT1 predicted better overall survival in endometroid cancer of the uterus than in patients lacking SIRT1. Progression-free survival was better in uterine endometrioid and clear-cell carcinoma for patients with SIRT1 expressed.  

These results are the first to report a correlation between SIRT1 and survival in uterine cancer. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of SIRT1 in uterine and ovarian cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target. 

atlas antibodies sirtuin

Figure 3. Sirtuin1 expression in endometrioid uterine carcinoma with an IRS score of 4. examples for Sirtuin1 positives cells are marked by the arrow →. Image from Beyer et al., 2020. 

 

References

1. Yuan Z, Zhao Z, Hu H, Zhu Y, Zhang W, Tang Q, Huang R, Gao F, Zou C, Wang G, Wang X. IgG Fc Binding Protein (FCGBP) is Down-Regulated in Metastatic Lesions and Predicts Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients. Onco Targets Ther. 2021;14:967-977.

2. Yamanoi Y, Fujii M, Murakami Y, Nagai K, Hoshi K, Hashimoto Y, Honda T, Saito K, Kitazume S, Soluble protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) in cerebrospinal fluid is a potential diagnostic marker for glioma. Neuro-Oncology Advances, 2020;2(1).

3. Beyer, S., Chen, F., Meister, S. et al. Sirtuin1 expression and survival in endometrial and clear-cell uterine cancer. Histochem Cell Biol 2020;154,189–195.