Primary antibodies targeting CD markers
CD markers, and the antibodies directed against them, are widely used in human and animal models to study the immune system. However, these markers play a crucial role in cancer research by enabling researchers to identify and track specific immune cell populations infiltrating within tumors.
Clusters of differentiation (CD) are surface molecules expressed on cells of the immune system such as lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells, and NK-cells), neutrophils, and monocytes/ macrophages. CD molecules play key roles in immune cell-cell communication and sensing the microenvironment and are essential markers for the identification and isolation of the different cell types in the immune system.
Figure 1. Multiplexed immunofluorescence staining of human colorectal cancer tissue using primary antibodies against CD104 and CD324 to label the tumor cells, including monoclonals Anti-ITGB4 (CD104) (AMAb91454, red), and Anti-CDH1 (CD324) (AMAb90862, blue). In green is the polyclonal Anti-TJP1 (HPA001636).
CD Markers in Cancer Research
In cancer research, CD markers are used to identify and isolate tumor cells from the surrounding normal tissue and to distinguish between different subtypes of cancer cells. They are also used to monitor treatment response and disease progression, as changes in the expression of certain CD markers can indicate tumor growth or regression.
Clusters of Differentiation (CD)
Expression of CD markers in normal human tissues using Atlas Antibodies’ Triple A Polyclonals™ and PrecisA Monoclonals™.
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis.
CD166, also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is a cell surface protein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is associated with tumor progression and metastasis.
CD47 is a cell surface protein that is overexpressed in lung cancer cells and is involved in immune evasion and tumor growth.
The pathological role of CD47 is commonly responsible for the escape of malignant cancer cells from immune surveillance. So, in addition to lung cancer, CD47 overexpression is found to be associated with poor prognosis in leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, bladder cancer, and breast cancer
Colorectal cancer cells characteristically show strong expression of keratin 20 (KRT20) and lack expression of keratin 7 (KRT7). B-lymphocytes expressing CD20 have a prognostic importance in colorectal cancer.
Figure 2. Immunohistochemical stainings of human cancerous tissues using Atlas Antibodies' Triple A Polyclonals: Anti-CD44 (HPA005785, Breast cancer); Anti-CD166 (HPA010926, Prostate cancer); Anti-CD47 (HPA044659, Lung cancer); Anti-CD38 (HPA022132, Prostate cancer).
CD markers in neuro-oncology research
CD markers are used to identify and track specific types of immune cells that are involved in brain function and disease. For example, CD4 and CD8 T-cells are known to play a role in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease, CD44 and CD133 are found in brain cancer, while CD38 is important in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Figure 3. Left: Immunohistochemical staining of human brain cancer (glioma) using the polyclonal Anti-CD44 (HPA005785, brown). Right: Immunofluorescence staining of SH-SY5Y-neuroblastoma-derived cell line using the Anti-CD72 (HPA044658, green).